Our look at imperialism will continue today with an examination of some events in Southeast Asia, including the United States’ efforts in the Pacific.
The Colonial Ledger: You were asked to brainstorm a list of effects of colonialism. Let’s talk about what you came up with, and I can share some others from a source I’ve used before with this activity.
Crucible of Empire – The Spanish-American War: This is another great PBS site that chronicles the beginning of the United States’ dealing with their own supporters and opponents of imperialism. There are a number of things here that might interest you. Check out some of these:
- 1895 – Cuban War for Independence
- August 1896 – Revolt in the Philippines
- February 16, 1898 – Battleship U.S.S. Maine Explodes
- April 25, 1898 – Congress Declares War
- May 1, 1898 – Commodore Dewey’s Victory in the Philippines
- March 23, 1901 – Aguinaldo captured by U.S. troops
America in the Philippines: After acquiring the Philippines from Spain as a result of the war, The United States needed to consider the issue of imperialism. Led by President McKinley’s call to “educate Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them,” the Americans stayed in the islands. Fierce resistance broke out among Filipino rebels, and a brutal three-year war followed. While over 4000 American soldiers died from fighting and disease, it is estimated that somewhere between 250,000 and 500,000 Filipinos died as a result of the fighting.
The Philippine History Site has a number of good resources on The Philippine-American War.
- American Designs and the Benevolent Assimilation tells of the plans to bring the Philippines under American control while also containing some interesting information about how US textbooks do/don’t cover this issue.
- You don’t have to read much of the American Campaign of Brutality to
understand the parallels many have drawn to a conflict the United States found itself involved in much later, the Vietnam War.
The White Man’s Burden In 1899, Rudyard Kipling wrote this poem to mark the annexation of the Philippines. Read through the entire poem and see what you think of it, particularly in terms of Kipling’s view of imperialism. We’ll talk about this one a bit. Here’s a parody of the poem written a few years later.
“Kipling, the ‘White Man’s Burden,’ and US Imperialism” (Monthly Review, November 2003) is a challenging, but very interesting article that looks at Kipling’s poem in light of recent events in American history and foreign policy. It’s really thought-provoking.
Blog-a-thon: We’re going to end today by giving you some choices. Basically, you’re responsible for posting a comment on one of the topics below by the end of the week.
Choose and post a good blog comment on ONE of these:
- Read the article, “American imperialism? No need to run away from the label.” (USATODAY.com, 5/5/2003) Comment on the article and the main issues it raises in your mind.
- Read the essay, “Shooting an Elephant,” by George Orwell. (He’s probably best known as the author of 1984 and Animal Farm.)
This essay draws on some of the ideas we’ve been talking about these last few days. Comment on the essay and how you think it is/is not relevant to the Age of Imperialism.
- “Yellow Journalism” played a role in the imperial debate in the United States and elsewhere. Put yourself in the role of a “yellow journalist” and choose one of these scenarios from which to write a brief “story” for your readers.
- British journalist in India during Sepoy Mutiny of 1857
- British journalist in South Africa during the Boer War
- American observer in the Philippines in 1900
- American journalist in Hawaii in 1893
HOMEWORK for next session – Thursday, December 19th
Please begin your reading in the final chapter of the quarter. Read Chapter 28, Section 1, “China Resists Outside Influence.” (pp. 805 – 809)
Your “Blog-a-thon” entry is due by the end of the day on Friday, December 20th.
Your cartoons on Industrialization and Imperialism are due on Monday, January 6th.
The VIP Timeline component is due at Lesson #37. That will be the Wednesday we return. (January 7th)
Let’s wait until tomorrow to check in on your “colonial ledgers.” Instead, we’ll head over to India to look at the age of British rule and its effects, largely through a debate format.
The Sepoy Mutiny: Here’s a website from Emory University that takes a look at the events of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. To better understand what this was all about, you might want to browse some of the following sections:
- Divide and Conquer
- Torture and Oppression
- The Rebellion
- The Cawnpore Massacres
- The Siege of Delhi
Debate: You’ll be asked to represent one of the two sides in a brief debate on the resolution below. I’ll provide you with an additional set of information for “your” side that should be helpful, and you will have some time to look at the resources below.
** On balance, the era of British rule was beneficial for India. **
We’ll hold this informal, large-group debate during the last thirty minutes of class.
DBQ Activity – Imperialism in India: An Evaluation Spending a little time with both these document excerpts and the primary sources below will help you with our culminating activity, a brief debate on the impact of British rule on India.
Primary Sources on India: Here are a number of primary sources related to the British rule in India. Some might be particularly useful for our conversation, and others are simply provided for your information.
- Charles Creighton Hazewell, “British India” (The Atlantic Monthly,1857)
- Charles Creighton Hazewell, “The Indian Revolt” (The Atlantic Monthly,1857)
- Dadabhai Naoroji, “The Benefits of British Rule” (1871)
HOMEWORK for next session – Wednesday, December 17th
Please finish your reading in Chapter 27 with Section 5, “Imperialism in Southeast Asia.” (pp. 796 – 799) The quiz will be true/false.
The “Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism” assignments are due Monday, January 6th.
Remember that your VIP Timeline component is due at Lesson #37. That would be Wednesday, January 8th.
REMINDERS: The extra credit option is described between Lessons #28 and #29. Remind me also to get you the VIP – Timeline instructions. That will be due after break.
We introduced the topic of imperialism last session, largely through our look at the Scramble for Africa. Today, we’ll continue along this general theme, taking more of a look at the colonial era that followed. Tomorrow, we’ll turn our attention to India.
Let’s make sure we have the basic language of imperialism down. There are four major forms of imperialism:
- sphere of influence
- economic imperialism
Make sure you’ve got a solid understanding of the two basic “styles” on imperial rule:
- indirect control
- direct control
Here are a couple of interesting graphs from the Statistics on the Extent of European Colonialism.
Let’s spend about ten minutes with a DBQ activity that provides a solid overview of imperialism in Africa.
The Congo – Then and Now: We mentioned last time that the Congo has had a turbulent history from King Leopold II to the present. Here’s an article from a couple years back updating the situation for you. Basically, estimates are that as many as 5.4 million people have died due to “Africa’s First World War” over the past decade. Congo’s Death Rate Unchanged Since War Ended – The New York Times, January 23, 2008. If you want a more in-depth understanding of this very complicated event, check out Chaos in Congo: A Primer from The New York Times in 2000.
The Colonial Era: We touched upon a number of these issues yesterday, so I’ll share with you a set of my old notes on the Colonial Era in Africa that might be useful in the activities that follow. In particular, let’s look at the various ways in which people responded to colonialism.
The Colonial Ledger: This is simple. Click on the title to download a simple chart. A “ledger” is a book used in accounting and elsewhere to keep track of transactions. Here, you are asked work with two or three others to brainstorm a list of effects of colonialism. Some may be positive, while many are certainly negative. Try also to classify them as economic, political and social. You should have a total of at least 12 impacts, with some in each of the six categories.
Primary Sources on Imperialism: Here are a number of primary sources related to imperialism. Some are ones we will work with, and others are simply provided for your information.
- Sir Henry Stanley, How I Found Livingstone (1871)
- Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden (1899)
- Edward Morel, The Black Man’s Burden (1903)
- Kaiser Wilhelm II, A Place in the Sun (1901)
Colonialism in 10 Minutes – Scramble for Africa – This is a YouTube clip from a recently released documentary film, Uganda Rising. I think it does a good job of giving you a quick overview of the Scramble for Africa, while it also links the past to the present in the country of Uganda very effectively.
HOMEWORK for next session – Tuesday, December 17th
Please continue your reading in Chapter 27 with Section 4, “British Imperialism in India.” (pp. 791 – 795)
Remember that the “Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism” assignments are due on Monday, January 6th. You can find the directions for that back on Lesson #25.
Your VIP – Timelines will be due at Lesson #37. That’s the Wednesday we return from break, I believe.
We’ll begin our look at the “Age of Imperialism” today. After a quick introduction, we’ll hold a quick simulation of the Berlin Conference. Next session, we’ll look at bit more at the theoretical basis for imperialism and the various responses to European colonialism.
Before we get too far, let’s make sure that we’ve got an understanding of the term “imperialism,” as well as the various factors that motivated Europe to pursue a strategy of imperialism in Europe.
The Berlin Conference: Assume we are meeting in 1885, even though some of your “characters” may already have made their impact by then. Each of you will represent a particular person or interest. Whatever perspective you are asked to represent, be sure you understand basic answers to these questions before we are finished:
- What was the “Scramble for Africa?”
- What factors led to the Scramble both during and after the Berlin Conference?
- What are some examples of the Europeans “carving the magnificent African cake?”
After you receive your “person” or group, consider their perspective on the Scramble. If you are a specific, historical figure (marked by *), check yourself out online. (If you are not a particular person, you may still find useful information there.) Otherwise, consult our reading and the information from the BBC’s The Story of Africa page on “Europe and Africa.”
Download a copy of the matrix for The Scramble for Africa so that you have a place to jot down some notes regarding the motivations and actions of these people, both real and fictional.
The Colonial Ledger: This is simple. Click on the title to download a simple chart. A “ledger” is a book used in accounting and elsewhere to keep track of transactions. Here, you are asked to brainstorm a list of effects of colonialism. Some may be positive, while many are certainly negative. Try also to classify them as economic, political and social. You should have a total of at least 8 impacts, with some in each of the six categories for tomorrow.
HOMEWORK for next session – Monday, December 16th
Please continue your reading in Chapter 27 with Section 3, “Europeans Claim Muslim Lands.” (pp. 786 – 790)
Have the required number of entries made on your “Colonial Ledger” for discussion next session.
Just a reminder that the “Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism” assignments are due Monday, January 6th. You can find the directions for that back a couple of lessons.
Your “Timeline” component of the VIP Project will be due at Lesson #37. That’s after break.
Basically, you can choose to watch and react to one film from my list. You’ll post your answers here to the blog, and that’s what I’ll use to award credit. You’ll receive up to ten extra credit points for successfully completing this assignment.
DISCLAIMERS: I’m simply listing films that I believe are appropriate choices. (I may be leaving some off because I know they are used in US History.) I am not paying attention to the ratings or content. While I have seen most of the films on the list, I have not seen them all. There may be content in some that you find objectionable. Since this isn’t a required assignment, I’m not bothering with permission slips or anything. I trust that you can do a quick Google search to figure out if the film is both interesting and appropriate for you. I’d also recommend consulting The Internet Movie Database for more information/reviews, etc.
I am trusting that you will select a film you haven’t seen and that you will actually watch it in its entirety. You are welcome to get together with others in my classes to watch a film. (Everyone needs to do their individual blog posting, however.)
DUE DATE: I want these posted to the blog no later than the end of the day on Sunday, January 12th. After that, you get no credit.
QUESTIONS TO ANSWER: After watching the film, consider the following questions and post your answers to THIS blog page.
- What film did you watch?
- What elements of “World History” was touched on by the film?
- How did the film reinforce and/or change your understanding of that history?
- What did you think of the film? (Comment on whatever you would like.)
You don’t need to write a book, but I’d expect a couple of decent paragraphs or so…
FILM LIST: I will certainly add more titles to the list as they come to me. (I will consider suggestions as well.) For now, here is a start of films that I consider good choices for the assignment.
Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007)
The Charge of the Light Brigade (1968)
Dangerous Liaisons (1988)
Les Misérables (1998 or the more recent version)
Peter the Great (1986)
Nicholas and Alexandra (1971)
Frankenstein (1931 or the more recent remakes) NOT Young Frankenstein
Michael Collins (1996)
Out of Africa (1985)
Black Robe (1991)
The Mission (1986)
1889 Paris World Exposition – Your job is to pretend that we are all at the 1889 Paris World Exposition. We’re focusing on the material from Chapter 26, Section 4, “Nineteenth-Century Progress.” (Don’t forget that we are playing fast and loose with time, as some of these developments came AFTER 1889…)
If you are interested, here’s where where today’s visitors rank in The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History.” Remember, this is solely the opinion of the author, Michael H. Hart, but it still makes for interesting browsing.
- Thomas Edison – phonograph and light bulb (others?)
- Alexander Graham Bell – telephone
- Guglielmo Marconi – radio
- Henry Ford – automobile
- Wright Brothers – human flight
- Louis Pasteur – germ theory of disease
- Joseph Lister – antiseptics
- Charles Darwin – evolution
- Gregor Mendel – genetics
- Dmitri Mendeleev – periodic table of the elements
- Marie and Pierre Curie – radioactivity
- Sigmund Freud – psychology
- Herbert Spencer – Social Darwinism
Please continue your reading in Chapter 27 with Section 2, “Imperialism – Case Study: Nigeria.” (pp. 779 – 784)
Your WWED? comments from Lesson #26 should be posted by the end of Thursday.
Here’s a link to the “Ignorance Quiz” that I showed at the start of the hour… We’ll use some of Hans Rosling’s video clips next quarter.
We’re sort of in that space between the Industrial Revolution and Age of Imperialism that really lacks a name or defining idea. So, we’ll touch briefly on a few things before shifting our attention to imperialism later this week.
Your comments for the WWED assignment on Lesson #26 should be posted there before Thursday’s class time.
So, here’s our list of things to accomplish today, despite the lack of any unifying theme…
First up, we can take a minute to chat about any of the economics information that needs clarification.
Second, we’re getting to the point where some of what we do will be closely linked to topics that you will also see next year in Modern U.S. History. For example, Chapter 26:1 deals with the expansion of suffrage to more groups of men and to women as well. You’ll take a close look at the women’s suffrage movement in America next year, so we’ll largely leave it alone. (If you know that the 19th century saw the expansion of male suffrage while women in the US and Great Britain didn’t gain the right to vote until after World War I, you are in good shape for this class.)
Third, we’re starting to see the roots of many of the events that will persist well into the 20th century and today. For example, Chapter 26:1 also mentioned several events important in the history of Judaism. You should be familiar with two terms and one event:
- Anti-Semitism refers to a prejudice against, and/or hatred of, the Jewish people. (Here’s what the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has to say on the topic.)
- Zionism can be thought of as a sort of Jewish nationalism, in which the goal was to re-establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It found a leader in the 1890s in Theodore Herzl.
- The Dreyfus Affair was an early example of the tension between these two ideas, this time in France in 1894. The trial and imprisonment of Jewish army Captain Alfred Dreyfus was based on false evidence, and it divided the French population. Anti-Semitism certainly played a role in these events, and it was only later that Dreyfus was freed and pardoned.
Fourth, we’ll take a quick look at the themes of expansion and “manifest destiny” as covered in Chapter 26:3. I’ve got an interesting set of three documents related to the Mexican-American War fought between 1846 and 1848. You’ll see what both supporters and opponents of the war thought, as well as what Mexican textbooks have to say about the issue.
Fifth, note that we’re not doing anything specific with the Civil War. I’m assuming that you’ve studied that at some point. (Don’t forget that the Union (the North) won…) If you’ve never taken a look at them before, both the Gettysburg Address and the Emancipation Proclamation are worth a look…
Finally, the remaining time is yours to work on your 1889 Paris World Exposition presentations. They’ll take place tomorrow. If you have completed that, you might either do the WWED post or work on the take-home quiz.
HOMEWORK for next session – Wednesday, December 11th
Your WWED comments should be emailed to me before class time on Thursday. You can find the instructions on yesterday’s blog entry.
We will be holding our 1889 Paris World Exposition (or “Fair” if you prefer) on Wednesday, December 11th. You’ll each have a short presentation ready for that.
Your Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism assignments are due on Monday, January 6th. Instructions for that are found back on Lesson #25.
Today, we’ll look at the comparative economic systems a bit more closely.
Debating Economic Systems – If you have strong feelings about one of more of the economic systems we have discussed, here’s your chance to share them. To make things more interesting, you’re going to be ASSIGNED at random to a particular side. You’ll receive a slip with a statement on it. You and the others with the same slips will have fifteen minutes of preparation time and then three minutes to present “your” side. After that, the rest of us can weigh in with our comments. Here are the six “sides” you might receive. (Page 737 is a good starting place for most of you.)
Before we hear each pair of arguments, we’ll make sure we’ve got the basic ideas of each of these down.
WWED? – “What Would the Economist Do?”
Here’s where history meets current events.
- Adam Smith
- David Ricardo
- Thomas Malthus
- Charles Fourier
- Karl Marx
ready for that.
We’re at a key time in the world’s history in terms of the field of economics. You’ve been introduced to Smith and Marx, as well as a number of terms used in the field. I think that both the rest of this year and all of next year’s United States history will make more sense if we spend some time looking at these people and ideas. We’ll do that today.
Charts and graphs and other things, Oh my! (That’s a version of the “Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!” exchange from The Wizard of Oz… Just thought you might want to know.) I’ve got several sheets containing various styles and sorts of information. You’ll get one of them, and we’ll share what we’ve got…
Cartoons – Industrialization and Imperialism- In this assignment, you will produce two cartoons of your own in editorial/political cartoon style. One will be on industrialization (or a closely related issue) and one will be on imperialism (or a specific example). These will both be due on Monday, January 6th, but I will certainly take them earlier.
Here are the guidelines:
- My preference is for each cartoon to be in black/color ink on 8 1/2 x 11 sheet of paper.
- You may use multiple panels, but most cartoons of this style are usually a single panel.
- Text on the cartoon may be typed (cut and paste) or hand-written, but must be legible.
- Your ideas are more important than artistic excellence, but there should be evidence of appropriate effort.
- You will be evaluated on adherence to topic, effectiveness of “message”, creativity and execution.
- Today’s Best Cartoons – This is Daryl Cagle’s “Pro Cartoonist Homepage.” You can find loads of current examples here.
- Editorial Cartoons – These are from www.gocomics.com
Migration – 19th Century People on the Move- We’ll do a couple of quick activities here on the movements of people around the world in the 19th century.
Remember that you may have identified “push” and “pull” factors that affected migration patterns last year. We’ll use that idea again today. In addition, we’ll take a look at the different types of migration.
“Economics for Sophomores” – I’m teaching Economics fourth quarter to some seniors, but we’ll try and give you a quick overview today. Think of this more as a “workshop” than a lecture. I’ll get you trying some graphing, etc.
If you have any of the take-home quizzes to turn in today, that’s great. If not, please make sure I get them tomorrow.
Industrial Revolution Discussion- I’ll have a handout for you with both our “roster” of characters and the specific questions with which we’ll begin our discussion. We’ll plan on at least fifteen minutes for each of the three “sections” of our overall conversation. We’ll take time for introductions at the start of each of the three panels.
- What do you think was the most important cause of the Industrial Revolution?
- Why England?
- Was industrialization inevitable? If so, why don’t we see it outside Europe at this time?
- Was increased population a cause or an effect of the Industrial Revolution? Explain.
- Would the world have been better off without the shift from an agrarian to an industrial outlook in much of the world?
- Which development was the most crucial to the Industrial Revolution?
- Which of the inventions of the Industrial Revolution most affects us today?
- Industrialization: Was it worth it? Why or why not?
- Was the effect of the Industrial Revolution the same on men and women?
- Which affected life the most: the French Revolution or the Industrial Revolution?
- How much of the suffering and difficulties of the Industrial Revolution could have been easily prevented?
- Was greed the primary cause of the revolution’s negative impacts?
- What, if anything, could reasonably have been done to improve the lives of
workers and citizens during the time of the Industrial Revolution?
- How did the Industrial Revolution change society?
- To what extent was “your” work a reaction to the Industrial Revolution?
- In your mind, was the Industrial Revolution positive or negative? Why?
- How could the negative effects of industrialization been minimized?
- What should be the relationship between the workers and the factory owners?
- Are their ethical and/or human rights issues at stake here in the Industrial Revolution?
- How and when should government intervene in the affairs of business?
- Did the Industrial Revolution cause an increase in global inequality? Why or why not?
- What are the most lasting impacts of the Industrial Revolution?
- Are we undergoing technological changes that will later be seen as a “revolution?”
HOMEWORK for next session – Thursday, December 5th
Please start your reading in Chapter 26 with Section 1, “Democratic Reform and Activism.” (pp. 747 – 750) The quiz will be true/false.