Lesson #22 – China under Communism and Mao Zedong

Today’s main focus will be on the rise to power of the Communist Party in China under Mao Zedong’s leadership. I’ve got some images from a book, The Chinese Century, that may also help you make sense of some of this.

CNN: Cold War Assignment: Last time, you received “your” episode from this series. You should have the episode watched before class time Tuesday, depending on where your episode fits in the chronology.

Back to the Chinese Civil War: Remember this one? When we last left our Nationalist and Communists, they were suspending their own conflict to resist Japan’s invasion in World War II. Let’s make sure you all have a good understanding of the answers to these questions:

  • What advantages did the Communists have at the end of World War II?
  • What issues and weaknesses led to the defeat of Jiang Jeishi’s Nationalist forces?
  • How did the outcome of the Chinese Civil War shape world events in the years to follow?

China Under Mao’s Leadership: Let’s be sure you understand these events and questions…

  • How did Mao consolidate power in China?
  • What was the “Hundred Flowers” campaign? Can you think of parallels in other countries?
  • What was the Great Leap Forward? How did it affect China?

Take a look at Mao Zedong’s “Ten Principles of War.” How relevant are these for guerrilla campaigns in the more modern world?

The Cultural Revolution: Morning Sun is a website that accompanies a film made about the Cultural Revolution. After some brief introductory comments, we’ll have you take a look at a number of interesting links here.

  • Why did Mao call for a “Cultural Revolution?”
  • What were the goals and tactics of the Cultural Revolution?
  • What was the legacy of the Cultural Revolution for China?

Check out these links at the “Morning Sun” website: (There’s a lot more there, but I think you’ll find these interesting.)

China’s Communist Revolution – A Glossary:

This is from a BBC site marking the 50th anniversary of the Communist takeover of China. You can scroll down the links on the left for good definitions of some key people and concepts. (Note the “old” spelling on Jiang Jeishi / Chiang Kai-Shek.)

China’s Economy – Looking Back at 50: Take a look at the three graphs below. Match changes with your understanding of China’s history under Communist Party rule. (We’ll return to China one more time to finish off the story.)

china_economy1.gifchina_economy_2.gif

china_economy3.gif














Stefan Landsberger’s Chinese Propaganda Poster Pages: This is a really cool site. Browse around the “Gallery” and share interesting images with your neighbors.


HOMEWORK for next session – Tuesday, February 25th

Please continue reading in Chapter 33 with Section 3, “Wars in Korea and Vietnam” (pp. 976-981). The quiz will be matching.

“Your” episode of the CNN: Cold War series should ideally be watched before Tuesday.

The VIP “Fakebook” component is due at Lesson #28. You received a handout with instructions for that yesterday. Lesson #28 should occur a week from next Tuesday.

Lesson #21 – From World War to Cold War

We’ve basically got three weeks (and two days) to complete your eighth, and final, unit of our World History curriculum before spring break. I’ll also give you the directions for the final two portions of your VIP Project.

Just a reminder that I did post a list of World History 10 Extra Credit Films back two entries on the blog if you are interested in those.

From World Wars to Cold War: I’ve got a variety of activities for you to work on today. We’ll have you sort of bridge the gaps between the end of World War II and the onset of what comes to be called the Cold War.

CNN – Cold War: First, you’re going to draw to select an episode of the highly regarded CNN – Cold War series to watch online. You’re just doing the drawing today, and we’ll have you work in pairs. It’s nothing major, but you’ll basically be asked to post a brief summary and respond to a couple of questions. Here are the various episode titles if you want to get started watching after you complete the tasks below. (My plan is that we’ll go over the first half of these on Monday.)

Go here to link to your episode. Each is about 45 minutes, as these were one hour episodes (including commercials) when broadcast. (We have previously had trouble with some YouTube links being removed once we start using them. Hopefully, we will be okay this time. Here’s the Wikipedia summary of each of the 24 episodes, so you can also read that.)

1. Comrades
2. Iron Curtain
3. Marshall Plan
4. Berlin ***
5. Korea ***
6. Reds
7. After Stalin
8. Sputnik ***
9. The Wall ***
10. Cuba ***
11. Vietnam ***
12. MAD ***
13. Make Love, Not War
14. Red Spring
15. China ***
16. D├ętente
17. Good Guys, Bad Guys
18. Backyard ***
19. Freeze
20. Soldiers of God ***
21. Spies
22. Star Wars ***
23. The Wall Comes Down ***
24. Conclusions

When you have finished viewing your episode, please prepare the following to share verbally with classmates.

  • Draft a several sentence summary of what the episode was about.
  • Identify key terms or people about which people should know.
  • List the three main conclusions/points/ideas that people should take away from this episode.
  • Your recommendation as to whether this is a worthwhile episode for others to watch.


  • Today’s activities: Please work on the next few activities in groups of about four (or as close to four as you can get…) One member of each group should serve as a recorder of what the group discusses and/or comes up with for answers. Names of the group members should go on that sheet, and this “report” should be prepared for discussion or to be turned in at the end of the class.

    The “Rules of War”: Think back on everything we learned about the two world wars. Imagine that you are a part of a committee drafting the “rules” for warfare. What are three rules that you each would insist on being a part of any such document? Your group should list no more than five on your “report” of the discussion.

    Nuremberg: You’ll need a copy of the Student Handout 1.3 – Nuremberg) Recall that the Nuremberg War Crimes trials took place from 1945 to 1949. Read through the acts considered “illegal” by the Allies. Then, discuss the following questions. Your group should briefly summarize key points of discussion in your “report.”

    • Look at the “war crimes” list. Are there additions or deletions you would suggest?
    • Look at the “crimes against humanity” list. Are there additions or deletions you would suggest?
    • Is a defense of “following orders” justifiable against any of these charges?
    • Can individuals be held responsible for the crimes of a nation?
    • Do you think it was possible for the Nuremberg defendants to receive “fair” trials? Why or why not?
    • Do you think documents like this have had a lasting impact on the conduct of warfare? Why or why not?

    Geneva Convention: (This is the other side of that sheet – Transparency 1.2) Take a look at the statement from the Geneva Convention on 1949. Briefly summarize your discussion in your “report.”

    • Do you think this document adequately protects prisoners and noncombatants in military conflicts? Why or why not?

    Bringing “Order” to the Post-War World Here, we’ll have you take a look at two significant efforts to bring order to the world after the effects of two world wars.

    The United Nations: (You’ll need the Student Handout 5.2 and 5.3 here.) As you read through the “purposes” of the United Nations consider both how important and how realistic these purposes are. Your group should discuss and identify the three goals of the UN that you find most important AND the three goals that you believe are most difficult to attain.

    Take a look at 5.3- The Security Council – As you read Article 23.1, take note of the membership of the Security Council. Your group should decide if any of the five members should be replaced. Whether or not you think any should be replaced, present a list of the three nations you believe are most worthy of getting a permanent seat on the Security Council in addition to the five permanent members.

    We’ll skip this one today… The Marshall Plan: (You’ll need a copy of the five “slips” with excerpts from Secretary of State George Marshall delivered to Harvard graduates in 1947 outlining his rationale for a plan to rebuild Europe.) Each group member should read one of the excerpts. Then, discuss the following questions.

    • What are the main points Marshall is making in your excerpt?
    • If you had been in the audience, how would you have reacted?
    • How relevant is Marshall’s argument in today’s world?

    The group should briefly discuss and report on the following question: Looking back from today, what are three reasons why you could consider the Marshall Plan a success? A failure?

    If your group completes all these tasks, you should turn in your report. (All groups should do that at the hour’s end even if not completed.)

    You can use any remaining time to read for tomorrow or to start watching “your” episode of the CNN: Cold War series.


    HOMEWORK for tomorrow – Friday, February 21st

    Please continue reading in Chapter 33 with Section 2, “Communists Take Power in China” (pp. 972-975). The quiz will be true / false.

    You should turn in both your Unit #7 Essay and your 33:1 take-home quiz by the end of the day on Friday.

    “Your” episode of the CNN: Cold War series should be watched by Monday. (Realistically, we won’t get to all of them before Tuesday, but we’ll do as many as we can.)

    Lesson #20 – Unit #7 Objective Exam

    It is the usual plan for today. You’ll take the objective portion of the Unit #7 Exam.

    Remember that your DBQs and essay should be turned in to me before the end of the day on Friday.

    Please double-space, or at least space and a half your essay. Double-sided is fine with me if you are printing it out.


    HOMEWORK for next session – Thursday, February 20th


    Please read the first section in Chapter 33, “Cold War: Superpowers Face Off” (pp. 965 – 970), and have the take-home quiz ready for FRIDAY’S class.

    If you are looking for something to do, a list of World History 10 Extra Credit Films is now posted on the blog entry preceding this one.

    Lesson #19 – Unit #7 IDs and DBQs

    Not much to say here. You’ll do the identifications and the DBQs today. If you would like to type your answers, you should download a Unit #7 Identifications template.

    If you are typing, please print out your exam when you are done. (Double-sided is just fine.)

    I will give you all a paper copy of the DBQs, but you may type your answers to those if you would prefer. (You can just do that at the “bottom” of the ID template.)


    HOMEWORK for next session – Wednesday, February 19th

    Here’s a copy of the
    Unit #7 Review Guide if you need another one.

    The multiple choice portion of the Unit #7 Objective Exam will be held tomorrow. Your essay also needs to get to me by the end of the school day on Friday, if not before.

    Lesson #18 – Unit #7 “Two-Minute” Review

    Welcome back. Nothing fancy today. We’ll do our Unit #7 review…

    Here’s a template for you to use.

    UNIT 7: The World at War (1900 – 1945)

    Chapter 29 – The Great War (1914 – 1918)
    1 – Marching Toward War
    2 – Europe Plunges into War
    3 – A Global Conflict
    4 – A Flawed Peace

    Chapter 30 – Revolution and Nationalism (1900 – 1939)
    1 – Revolutions in Russia
    2 – Totalitarianism
    3 – Imperial China Collapses
    4 – Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

    Chapter 31 – Years of Crisis (1919 – 1939)
    1 – Postwar Uncertainty
    2 – A Worldwide Depression
    3 – Fascism Rises in Europe
    4 – Aggressors Invade Nations

    Chapter 32 – World War II (1939 – 1945)
    1 – Hitler’s Lightning War
    2 – Japan’s Pacific Campaign
    3 – The Holocaust
    4 – The Allied Victory
    5 – Europe and Japan in Ruins

    HOMEWORK for next session – Tuesday, February 18th

    Remember that the Unit #7 Identifications Exam (and DBQs if you want) will be on Tuesday. The possible IDs (and the essay choices) are posted on a separate entry. You are allowed the 10 words of notes for each ID item.

    Here’s a copy of the
    Unit #7 Review Guide if you need another one.

    The multiple choice portion of the Unit #7 Objective Exam will be held on Wednesday. Your essay also needs to get to me by the time you leave school on Friday the 21st , if not before.

    Lesson #17 – Debating World War II

    Thanks to everyone for their work on the various “fronts” of World War II. I’m impressed with the wide variety of resources you accessed.

    Unit #7 “Two-Minute Reviews” – These will take place on Friday. We’ll take care of the sign-up for this.

    The Impact of World War II – The section you read for today did a pretty good job of summing up many of the impacts of the war. In addition to taking any questions or comments that you might have on those, I’m interested in your thoughts on a couple of other lists.

    • What are the most significant outcomes of World War II? (Why?)
    • What are the biggest “unanswered questions” at the war’s end?
    • Which of the world wars most impacts history? Why?

    Debating World War II – We could do these sorts of topics for weeks, but we only have part of a class period. We’ll start you out with the classic debate topic on World War II.

    Resolved: The United States was justified in dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Here are some collections of resources for you to browse to get some ideas and support for claims you might want to make.

    In the unlikely event that you run out of things to say on that topic, here are some more for us…

    • Resolved: The Treaty of Versailles was the predominant cause of World War II.
    • Resolved: The United States should have been directly involved in the European war before Pearl Harbor.
    • Resolved: The United States erred in not opening a second front in northern Europe before D-Day in June of 1944.
    • Resolved: The Allies should have bombed Auschwitz (and other concentration camps) once they were aware of their existence.
    • Resolved: The Soviet Union was more vital to winning the war in Europe than the United States.
    • Resolved: The bombings of cities such as London, Dresden and Tokyo should be considered war crimes.



    HOMEWORK for tomorrow – Thursday, February 7th

    We’ll do the Unit #7 “Two-Minute Reviews” Friday. Here’s a copy of the
    Unit #7 Review Guide if you need another one.

    Remember that the Unit #7 Identifications Exam (and DBQs if you want) will be next Tuesday. The possible IDs (and the essay choices) are posted on a separate entry. You are allowed the 10 words of notes for each ID item.

    The multiple choice portion of the Unit #7 Objective Exam will be held next Wednesday. Your essay also needs to get to me by the end of the school day on Friday, February 21st.

    Remember that I will accept things like your VIP Correspondence/Poster, “Between the Wars” assignments, and your “Words of World War II” blog posts up through your leaving for Deep Portage with no penalty.

    Unit #7 Exam Information – Identifications and Essay Questions

    Unit #7 Identifications: On Tuesday, February 18th, you will write on your choice of 5 of the 8 identifications that appear on the Unit #7 exam chosen from the list below. You may bring 10 words of “notes” for each of the 15 possible identifications to the exam. (Printed out, not on your computer.) You will need to turn in these notes, and I reserve the right to count symbols, acronyms, etc. as one or more words. Each of the five identifications is worth 5 points.

    A good identification is typically in the range of 4 to 6 sentences in length. (You do need to write in complete sentences.) You should demonstrate both an understanding of just who / what the ID “is” and place it in the appropriate historical context. In addition, you need to explain the significance of the ID. In other words, answer the “So what?” question.

    Schlieffen Plan
    League of Nations
    Treaty of Versailles
    March Revolution
    Great Purge
    Mao Zedong
    Amritsar Massacre
    Mustafa Kemal
    Great Depression
    Benito Mussolini
    appeasement
    Battle of Britain
    “Final Solution”
    Battle of Stalingrad
    Nuremberg Trials

    Unit #7 Essay Exam – Questions and Format – You’ll write an essay as part of the Unit #7 Exam. This essay must be turned no later than the end of the school day on Friday, February 21st. I would welcome any earlier than that. (I prefer them printed out, but you could email them as an attachment if time constraints require.) Below you can find both the questions from which you will choose and the format for the essay portion on the Unit #7 Exam. The essay will be evaluated on the usual 30 point scale, and that score is doubled in PowerSchool.

    Format: The actual essay will be written by hand or word-processed. You should prepare for a five-paragraph essay. That means that you should include an introduction (with a clear thesis statement), three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. (Note that the questions lend themselves to such a format. That is on purpose.)

    Remember that the questions are not designed for you to tell us everything you have learned. Focus on what the question is requiring you to do.

    A. Identify and explain the significance of your choices for the three most important outcomes or legacies of the First World War. Did the “end” of World War I make World War II inevitable? Why or why not?

    B. Identify and explain what you believe were the three main causes of the Great Depression that affected the world in the early 1930s. Is the world headed for another depression? Why or why not?

    C. At the end of World War II, the world faced a number of challenges and issues yet to be resolved. Identify and explain your choices for the three most important of these issues. Almost sixty-years later, do you believe our world is safer than it was at the end of 1945? Why or why not?

    D. Using at least three different reasons, explain and evaluate whether the United States was justified in dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Do you believe nuclear weapons will be used in your lifetime? Why or why not?

    Lesson #16 – “Reports From the Front” – Day #2

    The information for the Unit #7 Exam is posted on a separate entry following this one. We’re looking at the Unit #7 Review next Friday, the IDs/DBQs on Tuesday, December 18th, and the Unit #7 Objective Exam on Wednesday, February 19th. Your Unit #7 Essay is due no later than Friday, February 21st, but I’d certainly accept them earlier…

    World War II in Photos – The Atlantic magazine
    WWII in Color

    World War II – “Reporting from the Fronts” – Here are the six “fronts” from which you will be “reporting.” We have the final three scheduled for today.

    • War in Europe
    • War in North Africa
    • The Russian Front
    • The Holocaust
    • War in the Pacific
    • The United States and the War

    Each of these timelines can be found here.

    Eyewitness to History – World War II might be useful to you.

    HOMEWORK for next session – Monday, February 10th

    Finish up your reading in Chapter 32 with Section 5, “Europe and Japan in Ruins.” The quiz will be multiple choice.

    Remember that I will accept your VIP Correspondence/Poster, your “Words of World War II” blog postings, and your “Between the Wars” assignments through Monday without any consequences.

    All of the information for the Unit #7 Exam is posted on the blog entry following this one. We’ll do the Unit #7 “Two-Minute” Review next Friday.

    Lesson #15 – “Reports From the Front” – Day #1

    We’ll start hearing our “reports” from the various fronts of World War II today. My hope is that we hear from Europe, North Africa, and the Russian front. I plan on posting the Unit #7 Exam information for you before the weekend.

    Here are those two collections of World War II photographs that might be useful.

    World War II in Photos – The Atlantic magazine
    Scroll down to see all the choices in this 20-part retrospective.

    WWII in Color

    World War II – “Reporting from the Fronts” – Here are the six “fronts” from which you will be “reporting.”

    • War in Europe
    • War in North Africa
    • The Russian Front
    • The Holocaust
    • War in the Pacific
    • The United States and the War

    Each of these timelines can be found here.

    Assume that you have a maximum of 20 minutes to walk us through the events of your timeline. (15 minutes would be a reasonable minimum.) Although the presentations will no doubt differ a bit due to their content, I’m expecting each group’s presentation to include these items…

    “Reporting Live…” - For at least three of your events, a group member should report “live” from the scene. Basically, I’m thinking you will give us a minute or so as if you were there, reporting on what is happening/what happened and why it is/was significant. You can decide how creative to be, but the basic task should be clear enough. (You can certainly do this for more than three events if you’d like.)

    “Where in the World?”- I’ve got some pretty good maps you are welcome to use on the overhead. You also can use other maps on the computer projector. Basically, be sure we understand the geographic context for your information.

    Visuals - As many of you have already noticed, we’re covering an event that was well-recorded photographically and on film. Seeing something visual to accompany several of your events seems like a reasonable expectation.

    You need to make sure you are crediting the original sources, but Eyewitness to History – World War II might be useful to you.

    You are certainly free to put your own spin on these requirements, but I think the basic requirements are pretty straight-forward. Obviously, you’ll be expected to show the proper level of decorum for your particular events as well.

    HOMEWORK for tomorrow – Friday, February 7th

    Continue reading in Chapter 32 with Section 4, “The Allied Victory.” (pages 940 – 947) The quiz will be matching.

    The remaining “Reports from the Front” will take place tomorrow. Be ready.

    As a reminder, your VIP Correspondence / Poster was technically due today, and your “Between the Wars” assignment is due tomorrow. As I have said in class, I am fine with receiving either/both of those as late as Monday with no penalty.

    Your blog comments for the “Words of World War II” should also be posted to Lesson #13 by the end of Monday.

    Lesson #14 – “Reports From the Front” – Work Day

    Today, you’ll have your work time for the “Reports from the Front” that will occur tomorrow and Friday. We’re hoping to hear from Europe, North Africa, and Russia tomorrow. (It’s possible we would also get to the Holocaust.)

    World War II – “Reporting from the Fronts” – Here are the six “fronts” from which you will be “reporting” Thursday and Friday:

    • War in Europe
    • War in North Africa
    • The Russian Front
    • The Holocaust
    • War in the Pacific
    • The United States and the War

    Each of these timelines can be found here. I simply edited down much longer timelines from “The History Place” and “sorted” the events by fronts.

    Here are those two collections of World War II photographs that many of you might find useful.

    Assume that you have a maximum of 20 minutes to walk us through the events of your timeline. (15 minutes would be a reasonable minimum.) Although the presentations will no doubt differ a bit due to their content, I’m expecting each group’s presentation to include these items…

    “Reporting Live…” - For at least three of your events, a group member should report “live” from the scene. Basically, I’m thinking you will give us a minute or so as if you were there, reporting on what is happening/what happened and why it is/was significant. You can decide how creative to be, but the basic task should be clear enough. (You can certainly do this for more than three events if you’d like.)

    “Where in the World?”- I’ve got some pretty good maps you are welcome to use on the overhead. You also can use other maps on the computer projector. Basically, be sure we understand the geographic context for your information.

    Visuals - As many of you have already noticed, we’re covering an event that was well-recorded photographically and on film. Seeing something visual to accompany several of your events seems like a reasonable expectation.

    You need to make sure you are crediting the original sources, but Eyewitness to History – World War II might be useful to you.

    You are certainly free to put your own spin on these requirements, but I think the basic requirements are pretty straight-forward. Obviously, you’ll be expected to show the proper level of decorum for your particular events as well.


    HOMEWORK for next session – Thursday, February 6th

    Continue reading in Chapter 32 with Section 3, “The Holocaust.” The quiz will be true/false.

    Your “Reports from the Front” will take place tomorrow and Friday. The plan is to do the European, North African and Russian fronts tomorrow. (However, the Holocaust group should also be ready in case absences affect our plans.)

    The VIP Correspondence / Poster is due on Thursday, February 6th. That’s Lesson #15.

    Your “Between the Wars” assignment is due on Friday, February 7th. (That’s the poem, artwork or letter described on an earlier blog entry.)

    Your comments for the “Words of World War II” should be sent to me by the end of next Monday.

    I did say that I had no problem receiving the VIP Correspondence/Poster and/or the “Between the Wars” assignments a day or two late, as long as I got them before your departure for Deep Portage. That’s not a problem.